5G

How fast is 5G?

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5G Network Speed

How fast will 5G be?  Examining how fast the promised speeds for 5G: Currently -at time of writing, October 2018:  The 5G standards are not yet finalised by the 3GPP and the most advanced services are still in the pre-commercial phase. In fact, we probably won’t see any commercial 5G services before at least 2020, so […]

4G

Introducing Massive MIMO Technology

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4G 5G Massive MIMO

Introducing Massive MIMO Technology   Massive MIMO will play a key part in the 5G networks of the future.  Several mobile network operators around the world have already begun rolling the technology out. Massive MIMO is important to 5G Networks Explaining Massive MIMO MIMO stands for Multiple-input multiple-output. While it involves multiple technologies, MIMO can […]

4G

Voice over LTE: VoLTE

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Voice over LTE (VoLTE)

What is VoLTE? VoLTE stands for voice over LTE and it’s more or less exactly what it says on the tin. It’s voice calls over a 4G LTE network, rather than the 2G or 3G connections which are usually used. We tend to think of 4G as mostly being about downloading, streaming and web browsing, and indeed that’s […]

4G

5G is coming: Why MMW (Millimeter Wave) ?

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5G Network Speed

MMW: Millimeter Wave essential to meeting spectrum crunch and data demand Gigabit LTE is boosting capacity to meet demand today and setting the stage for a smooth roll out of 5G that will enable users to have a consistent network experience as they move from 5G hot spots onto gigabit LTE. But there’s a big […]

4G

ITU Regions for 4G, 5G, LTE

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ITU Regions

What are ITU Regions? The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in its International Radio Regulations, divides the world into three ITU regions for the purposes of managing the global radio spectrum. Each region has its own set of frequency allocations, the main reason for defining the regions.  These regions are used to define the frequency bands […]

4G

Frequency Reuse Plans for 4G LTE: SFR and FFR

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4G LTE Frequency Reuse Patterns

Frequency Reuse Plans in 4G / LTE 4G LTE cellular systems address the need of high capacity Wireless Internet services to mobile and fixed devices. Frequency Reuse planning is essential to allow seamless coverage and efficiency use of the available spectrum. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for wireless communications to achieve high […]

4G

Passive Intermodulation (PIM) as a source of 4G/LTE interference

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Passive Intermodulation (PIM) as a source of 4G/LTE interference What is PIM? One cause of self-disturbance in LTE Networks is Passive Intermodulation (PIM). PIM is interference resulting from the nonlinear mixing of two or more frequencies in a passive circuit. If the interference coincides with a network’s base receive frequencies, it can cripple network performance and throughput. Possible PIM […]

4G

Reducing PIM – Passive Inter-Modulation for 4G / LTE

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PIM Passive Inter-Modulation

Reducing Passive Inter-Modulation Passive Inter-Modulation, also known as PIM is a problem that can affect FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) LTE systems. Explaining the PIM Problem: Passive Inter-Modulation (PIM) products are caused by passive components such as duplexers, connectors, cables, and antennas. These components are nonlinear and create intermodulation products that can leak into the receive […]

4G

LTE Advanced Pro to 5G Roadmap

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LTE PRO evolution to 5G

LTE Advanced Pro and the Roadmap to 5G The 3GPP standards define the roadmap from LTE through LTE Advanced Pro to 5G, lead by the major players in the cellular industry – operators and vendors together. Evolution of LTE to 5G LTE is evolving from LTE, LTE-Advanced (LTE-A), LTE Advanced Pro (LTE-A Pro) and up […]

4G

Demonstrating 150Mbps 4G/LTE-A Connection to a Desktop LTE CPE

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4G LTE-A Test 152Mbps

Demonstrating 150Mbps 4G/LTE-A Connection to a Desktop LTE CPE: Throughput testing of LTE-A Closed Private 4G Network using 2×2 MIMO, 20MHz channel in Band 3. Shows 150Mbps DL & 42Mbps UL between PC web browser connected through  Desktop Cat4 LTE CPE and server. A video of the demonstration with some explanation and results is here: […]