4G

Voice over LTE: VoLTE

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Voice over LTE (VoLTE)

What is VoLTE? VoLTE stands for voice over LTE and it’s more or less exactly what it says on the tin. It’s voice calls over a 4G LTE network, rather than the 2G or 3G connections which are usually used. We tend to think of 4G as mostly being about downloading, streaming and web browsing, and indeed that’s […]

4G

5G is coming: Why MMW (Millimeter Wave) ?

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3GPP 5G LTE For 3.5GHz CBRS

MMW: Millimeter Wave essential to meeting spectrum crunch and data demand Gigabit LTE is boosting capacity to meet demand today and setting the stage for a smooth roll out of 5G that will enable users to have a consistent network experience as they move from 5G hot spots onto gigabit LTE. But there’s a big […]

4G

ITU Regions for 4G, 5G, LTE

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ITU Regions

What are ITU Regions? The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in its International Radio Regulations, divides the world into three ITU regions for the purposes of managing the global radio spectrum. Each region has its own set of frequency allocations, the main reason for defining the regions.  These regions are used to define the frequency bands […]

4G

Frequency Reuse Plans for 4G LTE: SFR and FFR

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4G LTE Frequency Reuse Patterns

Frequency Reuse Plans in 4G / LTE 4G LTE cellular systems address the need of high capacity Wireless Internet services to mobile and fixed devices. Frequency Reuse planning is essential to allow seamless coverage and efficiency use of the available spectrum. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for wireless communications to achieve high […]

4G

Passive Intermodulation (PIM) as a source of 4G/LTE interference

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Passive Intermodulation (PIM) as a source of 4G/LTE interference What is PIM? One cause of self-disturbance in LTE Networks is Passive Intermodulation (PIM). PIM is interference resulting from the nonlinear mixing of two or more frequencies in a passive circuit. If the interference coincides with a network’s base receive frequencies, it can cripple network performance and throughput. Possible PIM […]

4G

Reducing PIM – Passive Inter-Modulation for 4G / LTE

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PIM Passive Inter-Modulation

Reducing Passive Inter-Modulation Passive Inter-Modulation, also known as PIM is a problem that can affect FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) LTE systems. Explaining the PIM Problem: Passive Inter-Modulation (PIM) products are caused by passive components such as duplexers, connectors, cables, and antennas. These components are nonlinear and create intermodulation products that can leak into the receive […]

4G

LTE Advanced Pro to 5G Roadmap

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LTE PRO evolution to 5G

LTE Advanced Pro and the Roadmap to 5G The 3GPP standards define the roadmap from LTE through LTE Advanced Pro to 5G, lead by the major players in the cellular industry – operators and vendors together. Evolution of LTE to 5G LTE is evolving from LTE, LTE-Advanced (LTE-A), LTE Advanced Pro (LTE-A Pro) and up […]

4G

LTE Band 48 for CBRS

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CableFree CBRS spectrum USA

CBRS – Citizens Broadband Radio Service For the USA / North America Market The Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) is composed of a pair of LTE bands (42 – 3550-3660Mhz & 43 – 3660-3700Mhz) that have been allocated to low power cellular service in the United States. Spectrum allocation is tiered with two relevant tiers for […]

LTE

LTE Advanced and Carrier Aggregation (CA)

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LTEAdvancedPro LTE Carrier Aggregation CA

Carrier Aggregation in LTE-A (LTE Advanced) Carrier Aggregation is a key technology in LTE Advanced (LTE-A) to enable higher capacities on mobile networks. carrier aggregation mainstream, with global proliferation, which benefits the entire mobile ecosystem: Operators, App developers, and OEMs –  by delivering higher data rates, improved capacity, and the ability to use spectrum fragments. A simple diagram […]