Technology

What is Circuit Switched FallBack (CSFB) ?

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Gigabit 4G LTE Technology 8T8R Beamforming

What is Circuit Switched FallBack (CSFB) ? Circuit Switched FallBack (CSFB) is a technology used in 4G LTE whereby voice and SMS services are delivered to LTE devices through the use of GSM or another circuit-switched network. Circuit Switched FallBack is needed in some networks because LTE is a packet-based all-IP network that cannot support […]

4G

4G LTE Cells, Sectors and Antenna Beamforming

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Gigabit 4G LTE Technology 8T8R Beamforming

4G LTE Cells, Sectors and Antenna Beamforming Why Beamforming in Cellular Radio Design? In cellular radio network design, a simple hexagon is used to represent a complex object: the geographical area covered by cellular radio antennas. These areas are called “cells.” This shape lets us picture the cellular idea on a map, because when displaying […]

4G

8T8R Radios & Beamforming for LTE TDD Deployments

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Gigabit 4G LTE Technology 8T8R Beamforming

Beamforming and 8T8R LTE Radios New technologies, new techniques One of the early lessons learned by operators deploying LTE TDD was that of implementing beamforming with 8T8R (8 transmit, 8 receive) radio modules from the beginning. China Mobile is utilizing beamforming with 8T8R within the majority of its base stations from day one, a consequence […]

Technology

RF Connectors used for LTE Base Stations

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7/16 DIN Connectors for 4G 5G LTE Base Stations

RF Connectors used for LTE Base Stations Specialised connectors are used for 4G & 5G LTE Base Stations.  Key requirements include ability to handle high RF power levels as well as Low-PIM (Phase InterModulation) With all RF connectors the safe power handling is determined by the heating and subsequent oxidation of the centre ‘pin’ for […]

5G

5G NR LTE Air Interface

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5G Network Speed

The 5G NR (New Radio) Air Interface The 5G New Radio (5G NR) is a new air interface being developed for 5G. 5G NR is being developed from the ground up in order to support the great variety of services, devices & deployments which 5G will encompass, including diverse spectrum requirements, building on established LTE […]

4G

ITU Regions for 4G, 5G, LTE

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ITU Regions

What are ITU Regions? The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in its International Radio Regulations, divides the world into three ITU regions for the purposes of managing the global radio spectrum. Each region has its own set of frequency allocations, the main reason for defining the regions.  These regions are used to define the frequency bands […]

4G

Frequency Reuse Plans for 4G LTE: SFR and FFR

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4G LTE Frequency Reuse Patterns

Frequency Reuse Plans in 4G / LTE 4G LTE cellular systems address the need of high capacity Wireless Internet services to mobile and fixed devices. Frequency Reuse planning is essential to allow seamless coverage and efficiency use of the available spectrum. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for wireless communications to achieve high […]

4G

Passive Intermodulation (PIM) as a source of 4G/LTE interference

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Passive Intermodulation (PIM) as a source of 4G/LTE interference What is PIM? One cause of self-disturbance in LTE Networks is Passive Intermodulation (PIM). PIM is interference resulting from the nonlinear mixing of two or more frequencies in a passive circuit. If the interference coincides with a network’s base receive frequencies, it can cripple network performance and throughput. Possible PIM […]

4G

Reducing PIM – Passive Inter-Modulation for 4G / LTE

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PIM Passive Inter-Modulation

Reducing Passive Inter-Modulation Passive Inter-Modulation, also known as PIM is a problem that can affect FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) LTE systems. Explaining the PIM Problem: Passive Inter-Modulation (PIM) products are caused by passive components such as duplexers, connectors, cables, and antennas. These components are nonlinear and create intermodulation products that can leak into the receive […]

4G

LTE Advanced Pro to 5G Roadmap

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LTE PRO evolution to 5G

LTE Advanced Pro and the Roadmap to 5G The 3GPP standards define the roadmap from LTE through LTE Advanced Pro to 5G, lead by the major players in the cellular industry – operators and vendors together. Evolution of LTE to 5G LTE is evolving from LTE, LTE-Advanced (LTE-A), LTE Advanced Pro (LTE-A Pro) and up […]