4G

CPRI and eCPRI Interfaces for 4G

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What Are CPRI and eCPRI? CPRI, or Common Public Radio Interface, defines key interface specification between REC (Radio Equipment Control) and RE (Radio Equipment) of radio base stations used for cellular wireless networks. It is a protocol of choice for fronthaul communications between towers and base stations (BSs) through several generations of wireless networks. CPRI […]

LTE

What are NB-IoT and LTE-M ?

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NB-IoT and LTE-M Explained: Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) is a Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) radio technology standard developed by 3GPP to enable a wide range of cellular devices and service. The advantage of LTE-M over NB-IoT is its comparatively higher data rate, mobility, and voice over the network, but it requires more […]

4G

RadioMobile for 4G Network Planning

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CableFree RadioMobile LTE Coverage Planning Sample link budget

RadioMobile: Popular software for 4G Network planning RadioMobile is a widely-available software package which can be used for 4G Network planning, including path profiling and clearance criteria, power budgets, choosing antenna sizes and tower heights. For website for RadioMobile, please see this link here: RadioMobile functions For 4G Network Planning, the software package can be […]

Technology

What is Circuit Switched FallBack (CSFB) ?

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Gigabit 4G LTE Technology 8T8R Beamforming

What is Circuit Switched FallBack (CSFB) ? Circuit Switched FallBack (CSFB) is a technology used in 4G LTE whereby voice and SMS services are delivered to LTE devices through the use of GSM or another circuit-switched network. Circuit Switched FallBack is needed in some networks because LTE is a packet-based all-IP network that cannot support […]

4G

4G LTE Cells, Sectors and Antenna Beamforming

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Gigabit 4G LTE Technology 8T8R Beamforming

4G LTE Cells, Sectors and Antenna Beamforming Why Beamforming in Cellular Radio Design? In cellular radio network design, a simple hexagon is used to represent a complex object: the geographical area covered by cellular radio antennas. These areas are called “cells.” This shape lets us picture the cellular idea on a map, because when displaying […]

4G

8T8R Radios & Beamforming for LTE TDD Deployments

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Gigabit 4G LTE Technology 8T8R Beamforming

Beamforming and 8T8R LTE Radios New technologies, new techniques One of the early lessons learned by operators deploying LTE TDD was that of implementing beamforming with 8T8R (8 transmit, 8 receive) radio modules from the beginning. China Mobile is utilizing beamforming with 8T8R within the majority of its base stations from day one, a consequence […]

Technology

RF Connectors used for LTE Base Stations

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7/16 DIN Connectors for 4G 5G LTE Base Stations

RF Connectors used for LTE Base Stations Specialised connectors are used for 4G & 5G LTE Base Stations.  Key requirements include ability to handle high RF power levels as well as Low-PIM (Phase InterModulation) With all RF connectors the safe power handling is determined by the heating and subsequent oxidation of the centre ‘pin’ for […]

4G

ITU Regions for 4G, 5G, LTE

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ITU Regions

What are ITU Regions? The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in its International Radio Regulations, divides the world into three ITU regions for the purposes of managing the global radio spectrum. Each region has its own set of frequency allocations, the main reason for defining the regions.  These regions are used to define the frequency bands […]

4G

Frequency Reuse Plans for 4G LTE: SFR and FFR

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4G LTE Frequency Reuse Patterns

Frequency Reuse Plans in 4G / LTE 4G LTE cellular systems address the need of high capacity Wireless Internet services to mobile and fixed devices. Frequency Reuse planning is essential to allow seamless coverage and efficiency use of the available spectrum. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for wireless communications to achieve high […]

4G

Passive Intermodulation (PIM) as a source of 4G/LTE interference

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Passive Intermodulation (PIM) as a source of 4G/LTE interference What is PIM? One cause of self-disturbance in LTE Networks is Passive Intermodulation (PIM). PIM is interference resulting from the nonlinear mixing of two or more frequencies in a passive circuit. If the interference coincides with a network’s base receive frequencies, it can cripple network performance and throughput. Possible PIM […]